Riscaldamento globale: cioccolato a rischio

Entro metà del secolo il cioccolato potrebbe diventare un bene di lusso. Lo afferma un rapporto commissionato dalla fondazione Bill e Melinda Gates, secondo cui a causa dei cambiamenti climatici nel 2050 Ghana e Costa d’Avorio, che producono metà del cacao mondiale, non avranno più terreni adatti a coltivare questa pianta.

Lo studio dell’International Center for Tropical Agriculture ha esaminato 19 diversi modelli climatici applicandoli alle caratteristiche delle piante di cacao. Secondo i risultati, con l’aumento di 2,5 gradi della temperatura media previsto per il 2050 la quasi totalità dei terreni che oggi sono dedicati alla coltivazione del cacao non sarà più adatta, e il declino inizierà già nel 2030, quando la temperatura media dovrebbe aumentare di un grado.

“Stiamo già vedendo gli effetti della crescita della temperatura in aree marginali – spiega Peter Laderach, il principale autore del rapporto – e con i cambiamenti climatici queste aree aumenteranno progressivamente. In un momento in cui la domanda globale di cioccolata sta crescendo velocemente, particolarmente in Cina, questo porterà prima o poi a un aumento dei prezzi”.


Fra le soluzioni individuate ci sono lo spostamento delle piantagioni ad altitudini maggiori, limitato però dalla ‘piattezza’ del territorio dell’Africa Occidentale, lo sviluppo di nuove forme di irrigazione e la selezione di ceppi resistenti al caldo: “Molti di questi agricoltori usano gli alberi di cacao come se fossero un bancomat – spiega ancora l’esperto – raccolgono qualche baccello e lo vendono velocemente per pagare le spese mediche o per le tasse scolastiche. Questi alberi hanno un ruolo critico nella vita rurale”.

Fonte: Ansa

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