Terremoti al Nord Italia

Il 25 gennaio 2012, alle 00:54, una scossa sismica di magnitudo (Ml) 4.2 ha interessato il territorio delle Prealpi Venete, nella provincia di Verona. Alle 09:06 una scossa di magnitudo (Ml) 4.9 ha invece interessato la pianura padana nel territorio della provincia di Reggio Emilia, al confine con la provincia di Parma. Si tratta di due sequenze distinte, che non hanno alcun legame tra loro.

In Italia la Rete sismica nazionale registra 10.000 terremoti ogni anno, mediamente trenta al giorno, che non è possibile prevedere. Per questo è importante essere consapevoli del livello di pericolo del territorio e informarsi su come sono costruiti gli edifici in cui viviamo, studiamo e lavoriamo, e sulla loro conseguente vulnerabilità sismica.

La mappa di pericolosità e la classificazione sismica indicano quali sono le aree del nostro Paese interessate da un’elevata sismicità, e quindi dove è più probabile che si verifichi un terremoto di forte intensità, ma non possono stabilirne il momento esatto.

Lo studio delle sequenze sismiche, come quelle in atto nel Nord Italia, non consente di fare ipotesi sulla loro evoluzione e sulla possibilità che si verifichi o meno una scossa più forte. Ad oggi, infatti, non ci sono metodi riconosciuti dalla scienza per prevedere il tempo ed il luogo esatti in cui avverrà un terremoto. La mappa di pericolosità sismica è tuttora lo strumento più efficace che la comunità scientifica mette a disposizione per le politiche di prevenzione. La prevenzione, che si realizza principalmente attraverso la riduzione della vulnerabilità sismica delle costruzioni, ovvero il rafforzamento delle costruzioni meno resistenti al sisma, resta la migliore difesa dai terremoti e l’unico modo per ridurne le conseguenze.

Sulla base dei dati forniti dall’Ingv-Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia e dall’Ufficio Rischio sismico e vulcanico del Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, pubblichiamo alcuni approfondimenti sui fenomeni. Con l’occasione riproponiamo il test sulla prevenzione del rischio sismico e ricordiamo ai nostri lettori alcune regole di comportamento.

Sequenza sismica nel veronese
Nelle Prealpi venete è in atto una sequenza sismica localizzata una decina di chilometri a Nord della città di Verona. Al momento sono state registrate una decina di scosse, con valori di magnitudo Ml compresi tra 1.6 e 4.2, le più forti Ml 2.7 (20:41 del 24 gennaio), Ml 2.5 (07:15 del 25 gennaio) e Ml 2.9 (08:26 del 25 gennaio). Le profondità degli ipocentri si concentrano intorno ai 10 km.
La scossa principale è stata avvertita in una vasta area del Veneto e della Lombardia orientale ed in particolare nei comuni di Bosco Chiesanuova, Cerro Veronese, Fumane, Grezzana, Marano di Valpolicella, Negrar, San Pietro in Cariano, Sant’Anna d’Alfaedo, tutti in provincia di Verona.
Il Veneto rappresenta una regione sismicamente attiva, sia perché sede di diverse zone sismogenetiche generatrici di forti terremoti, sia perché risente della sismicità delle regioni vicine.
Nel Veneto sono diverse le aree dove si concentra la sismicità, tutte lungo la fascia prealpina: il veronese (al passaggio tra i Monti Lessini e la pianura, lungo le Valli d’Illasi e di Chiampo), il trevigiano (in particolare la zona di Asolo) ed il bellunese (soprattutto nella zona dell’Alpago-Cansiglio).
Il territorio interessato dalla sequenza in atto presenta una pericolosità sismica medio – bassa, in base alla mappa di pericolosità sismica del nostro Paese realizzata dall’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. Storicamente, l’area è stata colpita da pochi terremoti, ma di magnitudo rilevante: nel 1891 il terremoto della Valle d’Illasi di magnitudo fra 5.7 e 5.9 e nel 1117 il grande terremoto del Veronese di magnitudo probabilmente superiore a 6.5. Una descrizione degli effetti dei principali terremoti storici è contenuta nella scheda tecnica sulla sismicità del Veneto.
Negli ultimi 10 anni l’area e’ stata caratterizzata da un’attivita’ sismica strumentale molto bassa.
I Comuni interessati dalla sequenza sono classificati sulla base della Deliberazione Consiglio Regionale Veneto n. 67 del 3 dicembre 2003, in zona 3 (bassa pericolosità) ed in misura minore in zona 2 (media pericolosità). Si tratta di territori in cui devono essere applicate specifiche norme per le costruzioni.

Sequenza sismica nel reggiano e parmense
Nel territorio a cavallo tra le province di Reggio Emilia e Parma, nella pianura padana lombardo – emiliana è in corso una sequenza sismica localizzata tra i comuni di Brescello, Gattico, Poviglio, Castelnuovo di Sotto, tutti in provincia di Reggio Emilia.
Al momento sono state registrate tre scosse, con valori di magnitudo Ml compresi tra 2.3 e 4.9, in particolare Ml 4.9 alle ore 09:06, Ml 2.3 alle ore 09.24, Ml 2.3 alle ore 10:02. Le profondità degli ipocentri si concentrano intorno ai 25-30 km.
La scossa principale è stata avvertita in una vasta area del nord Italia comprendente Veneto, Lombardia, Emilia Romagna, Piemonte e Liguria. Non sono stati segnalati danni significativi. E’ stata osservata la caduta di oggetti all’interno delle case e di qualche calcinaccio e pezzo d’intonaco dalle facciate di alcuni vecchi edifici.
Il territorio emiliano interessato dalla sequenza in atto presenta una pericolosità sismica medio – bassa, in base alla mappa di pericolosità sismica del nostro Paese realizzata dall’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. I Comuni interessati dalla sequenza sono classificati, sulla base della Deliberazione Consiglio Regionale dell’Emilia Romagna n. 1435 del 21 luglio 2003, in zona 3 (bassa pericolosità). Si tratta di territori in cui devono essere applicate specifiche norme per le costruzioni.
Il territorio emiliano è interessato da terremoti frequenti che, tuttavia, raramente superano magnitudo 6. Le aree del parmense e del reggiano, in particolare, sono state storicamente interessate da eventi sismici che hanno prodotto effetti non superiori al VIII grado Mercalli. Un approfondimento sui principali terremoti del passato è contenuto nella scheda tecnica sulla sismicità del reggiano e parmense.

Fonte Dipartimento della Protezione Civile

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