Nasce la pesca del futuro

La riforma del settore della pesca sarà radicale: l’obiettivo dichiarato nella proposta della Commissione europea è garantire la sopravvivenza sia degli stock ittici che dei mezzi di sussistenza dei pescatori, ponendo un freno all’eccessivo sfruttamento e al depauperamento delle specie di pesce. La riforma introdurrà un approccio decentrato alla gestione della pesca basato su conoscenze scientifiche, a livello delle regioni e dei bacini marittimi, e definirà migliori norme di governance nell’Unione e a livello internazionale tramite accordi di pesca sostenibile.

Secondo il testo che l’esecutivo comunitario ha appena approvato, tutti gli stock ittici devono essere portati a livelli sostenibili entro il 2015,
conformemente agli impegni internazionali. Per tutti i tipi di pesca verrà adottato un approccio ecosistemico, con piani di gestione a lungo termine
basati sui migliori pareri scientifici disponibili per salvaguardare la risorsa.

Verrà progressivamente eliminata la pratica dei rigetti, cioè di ributtare in mare le catture accidentali di pesce, che costituisce uno spreco di risorse
alimentari e una fonte di perdite economiche: i pescatori avranno l’obbligo di sbarcare tutto il pesce catturato. Le proposte includono inoltre obiettivi specifici e scadenze definite per porre fine al sovrasfruttamento, strumenti basati sul mercato come le quote individuali di cattura negoziabili, misure di sostegno per la pesca artigianale, una migliore raccolta dei dati nonché strategie volte a promuovere un’acquacoltura sostenibile in Europa. I consumatori potranno ottenere migliori informazioni in merito alla qualità e alla sostenibilità dei prodotti che acquistano.

I principi e gli obiettivi strategici generali verranno prescritti da Bruxelles, ma spetterà agli Stati dell’UE definire e applicare le misure di
conservazione più appropriate. Oltre a semplificare le procedure, questo approccio favorirà soluzioni più adeguate per soddisfare le esigenze regionali e locali. Gli operatori del settore dovranno adottare le loro decisioni economiche per adattare le dimensioni delle flotte alle possibilità di pesca. Le organizzazioni di produttori svolgeranno un ruolo più efficace nell’orientare l’approvvigionamento dei mercati e nell’aumentare i profitti dei pescatori.

Il sostegno finanziario verrà concesso unicamente a iniziative ecocompatibili che contribuiscano a una crescita intelligente e sostenibile. Un rigoroso
meccanismo di controllo escluderà ogni finanziamento ad attività illecite o di sovraccapacità. Nell’ambito degli organismi internazionali e delle relazioni con i paesi terzi, l’UE applicherà gli stessi principi praticati a livello interno e promuoverà la sana gestione dei mari nel resto del mondo.

Nel presentare le proposte, la commissaria Maria Damanaki, responsabile per gli affari marittimi e la pesca, ha dichiarato: “Occorre agire immediatamente per riportare tutti i nostri stock a livelli di sicurezza e preservarli per le generazioni presenti e future. Solo a queste condizioni i pescatori potranno continuare a pescare e a trarre un adeguato sostentamento dalle loro attività. Ciò significa che occorre gestire correttamente ogni singolo stock, prelevando quanto possibile. Ne risulteranno catture più elevate, un ambiente sano e la garanzia dell’approvvigionamento di prodotti del mare.”

Il settore della pesca UE è caratterizzato da vari problemi interconnessi. La flotta peschereccia dell’Unione è infatti troppo grande e troppo efficiente,
con conseguente sovrasfruttamento degli stock. Le catture diminuiscono di anno in anno e le comunità costiere, che spesso dipendono dalla pesca, vedono sfumare le proprie opportunità economiche. Nell’ambito del processo decisionale, i leader politici tendono a favorire gli interessi a breve termine piuttosto che la conservazione delle risorse a lungo termine; e sinora neanche l’approccio legislativo di Bruxelles aveva offerto molti incentivi per indurre un comportamento responsabile del settore e contribuire a un uso sostenibile delle risorse.

Questo nuovo pacchetto viene ora sottoposto al Parlamento europeo e al Consiglio per essere adottato secondo la procedura legislativa ordinaria in
vista dell’entrata in vigore a inizio 2013. Nel corso dell’anno la Commissione proporrà anche un nuovo meccanismo di finanziamento per la politica della pesca e degli affari marittimi, in conformità con il nuovo quadro finanziario pluriennale dell’UE.

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