Clima: Kyoto agli sgoccioli, scade nel 2012

Il protocollo di Kyoto e’ agli sgoccioli. Il suo primo periodo di applicazione termina nel 2012, e ancora manca un accordo sul suo prolungamento soprattutto per le differenti opinioni politiche sugli impegni di riduzione delle emissioni, cosa che coinvolge paesi industrializzati, emergenti e in Via di Sviluppo. Per il trattato taglia-CO2 le ipotesi allo studio sono diverse.

Quelle piu’ accredite, secondo Mariagrazia Midulla, responsabile clima del Wwf, sono essenzialmente due. La prima, quella che ‘’contempla un secondo periodo’’. La seconda, in cui si potrebbe ‘’allungare la vita alla attuale formula’’ per arrivare magari al 2020 in ”un regime transitorio”. Inoltre, secondo alcuni osservatori, un ‘Kyoto 2’ potrebbe consentire un arrivo semplificato a un accordo globale. Il primo periodo di osservazione e’ iniziato nel 2008, per ricavarne il valore medio al 2010. Kyoto e’ l’unico trattato internazionale legalmente vincolante sulla riduzione delle emissioni (nonche’ relativo a questioni climatiche) per i Paesi che lo hanno sottoscritto e ratificato.

Usa e Cina non hanno obblighi legali di riduzione: gli Stati Uniti non lo hanno ratificato ma sono tenuti ad osservare gli impegni della Convenzione quadro per i cambiamenti climatici, l’Unfccc, da cui il protocollo di Kyoto deriva; mentre la Cina lo ha firmato e ratificato per partecipare ai meccanismi flessibili, ma non è tenuta a nessun obbligo di riduzione delle emissioni. L’Ue, che e’ invece favorevole a target piu’ ambiziosi di riduzione delle emissioni, emette l’11% del totale dei gas serra mondiali.

Per l’Italia l’obiettivo da raggiungere al 2012 e’ la riduzione delle proprie emissioni del 6,5% rispetto ai livelli del 1990 (l’anno di riferimento a cui Kyoto ha agganciato i propri risultati). In ogni caso l’obiettivo rimane quanto formalizzato dall’Unfccc a Cancun sul surriscaldamento del Pianeta, cioe’ limitare l’aumento della temperatura media globale entro i due gradi rispetto all’epoca preindustriale. Si tratta di un limite di 450 ppm (parti per milione) di concentrazioni atmosferiche di gas serra e che corrisponde ad una riduzione delle emissioni del 40% da parte dei Paesi industrializzati rispetto al 1990 e dell’80% da parte di tutti i paesi (industrializzati e non) al 2050 rispetto al 1990, oppure di almeno il 95% da parte dei paesi industrializzati e di una riduzione dell’intensita’ di carbonio da parte dei paesi in via di sviluppo.

Fonte: Ansa

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